Served 1901 to 1918
became the Head Gardener in 1901. In 1904 he was
made Superintendent of the Baths and Reserves
Department, a position in which he was to remain
until his retirement in 1918. The huge task of
filling and developing the Anderson Park Gully as a
Recreation Ground was carried out. Many of the
earlier plantings of trees in the Main Garden were
removed and the area was extensively replanted,
including magnolias along the Bamboo Path. A ti tree
arch spanned the entrance path in Hector’s Teaching
Garden. The Teaching Garden, with parterre plantings
dating from 1880, was retained until 1910, after
which it was gradually replaced by a rose garden.
This area is now the Sound Shell lawn.
Glen directed many changes and
development of the Garden, most of which are still
visible today. The changes were not always popular
with the public, but overall changed the face of the
Garden for the better. The significant ones are
Local access to the
Garden improved and at times posed a threat to the
integrity of the Garden. The construction of the Cable
Car and Tea Kiosk meant that the removal of trees
growing adjacent to the site was necessary. In
1907 the entrance from Mariri Road and the Mariri Road
Lawn was formed, involving quite extensive tree
felling and earth works. The basic structure of the
landscape was left intact and has ultimately
integrated with later developments in those parts of
the Garden. More dangerous was a proposal in 1925 to
connect Kelburn and Thorndon with a road that would
have passed along the Glen. In 1929 another proposal
linking Upland and Salamanca Roads along the ridge
behind the observatories was also planned. This would
have had an unfortunate impact on access to one of the
most spectacular viewing points of the Garden and was
also opposed by the Dominion Astronomer on the grounds
that the function of the observatories would be
adversely affected. Fortunately the Crown as owner of
the Observatory Reserve rejected this Council
At other times residents have had to push for the right to use this route called the Battery Road, between Kelburn and Salamanca Road. The problem came from the bylaw prohibiting entry to the Garden after dusk. In 1903 in order to prevent people coming into the Garden after closing time, Superintendent Glen was in favour of fencing in one of the two entrances through the Cable Car land, and providing the remaining one with a gate which could be closed each evening. He felt that "if something (was) not done in the matter the Gardens (would) soon be getting a bad character and respectable people (would) not care to visit them ". Respectable people, however, were all for retaining this right of way and lobbied the Council directly on the matter. While this was going on Glen changed his mind in 1904 and reported to the Town Clerk that closing access to the Battery Road would be inconvenient as it was "much used in the evenings by respectable people" . In August 1929 access was closed by the Cable Car Company, because it had been sued by someone injured while crossing the Cable Car tracks. For some months access to the Garden was from Rawhiti Terrace and thence up the bank to the Scout House. As a result of this the Council explored the possibility of alternative access routes into the Garden, one of which was the road referred to above. An alternative was not finally provided until 1934 when the Council formed the path into the Garden which runs from Upland Road behind the machinery building, and the Cable Car Company paid for a pedestrian path across its property available for use at all times.
with evil intent
By the 1890's even with a resident policeman, it was impossible for a small staff to supervise such a large area, much of it covered in forest and scrub. Because of this in 1894 the Council requested the Inspector of Police to place a constable on duty in uniform in the Garden during the daytime. In view of this persistent need the Council's action in dismissing the resident policeman in 1898 and handing his cottage over to the Custodian's assistant is surprising. It must have been some benefit even greater than the maintenance of law and order, such as avoiding spending money, that persuaded them to do this. There is plenty of evidence that they lived to regret their action.
are many parts of the Garden that children have used
probably ever since the first houses were built in
the Thorndon area in the 1850's and 1860's. Forts
among the pines on the Glenmore hills and in the
bush below the Weather Office where common up to the
1980's. Once there were more streams to dam and they
were rich in fresh water crayfish. Many of these
streams are now piped, and water run-off and
effluent from the miles of surrounding city roads
have put paid to the crayfish.
the dry summers of the 1960's sliding down the grass
banks around the Rose Garden and Salamanca Road
lawns on sheets of cardboard left tracks of bare
earth which niggled the horticultural sensitivities
of the staff. With the craze for skate boarding the
sealed roadways in the Garden were wonderful places
to develop and practice the skills of this sport.
Today grass skaters use the lawns above the Rose
Garden and the fountain pools are not wasted as
swimming holes during the summer.
One of Glen's first installations was the Children's Play Area authorised in 1904, and built in 1905. In June it was in working order except for the provision of drinking water. Glen requested that this be laid on "as it was needed especially during the summer months for picnic parties and children playing. There was no drinking water available except from a dirty creek." The Engineer's Department supplied the new playground with four swings, two horizontal bars and two seasaws. The space in which these stood was much smaller than that provided today. This came to be enlarged after 1968 as a result of clearances made possible by the Wahine Storm. Though there are a greater variety of things to play on, the character of what is offered now is much the same as in 1905 although the provision of flush toilet provides a superior service today. A rest room for women was built in the 1920's or early 1930's, but this was only provided with chemical toilets in 1948. These served the Play Area until the present facilities were built in 1966.
The provision of public toilets did not occur until 1905. In March Glen reported "that conveniences for ladies were urgently needed . . . owing to the large number of visitors who frequent (the Garden) now". Because of the expense involved in connecting the proposed "conveniences with the sewerage system, the City Engineer advised "that two earth closets be erected back from one of the main footways in such a possitsion that they would be effectively screened from public view. Men were not provided with pub lic toilets until 1915. Brick conveniences were built at a cost of £144 0 0. situated by the Lower Yard which would have been strategically placed in relation to the Band Rotunda nearby. This lack must have caused many regrettable infringements of the bylaw against entering the plantations and undermined a proper respect for the law. By 1915 the gardener's had also been provided with flush toilets as work on the new stables and mess room started in late 1914. New toilets were built again in 1929, the brick restroom and toilet on the Main Drive, a considerable improvement on the old wooden building that it replaced. During the same year building was also in progress on the new street frontage following the widening of Tinakori Road. including the wall and waiting shed north of the Main Gates including the public toilet at the entrance to Anderson Park. Toilets -were eventually provided wherever large numbers of people went. Today the Rose Garden, Begonia House, Tea House, and Dell Lawn are the most popular focal points of the Garden.
In the 1870's the Botanic Garden Board received permission from the Trustees of the cemetery reserves on which the Park now stands, to fence and plant these reserves. By the late 1880's this had resulted in an integrated landscape stretching from the present Peace Garden ridge, northwards down the valley to where it was crossed by the wall of the the Glenbervie Road embankment.; Plantations sprouted from the native forest along the valley and covered the western ridge above Tinakori Road.
In November 1906 development commenced with the removal of trees and clearing the valley in preparation to forming the new recreation ground. This operation was still in progress in December 1907 when The Evening Post reported Glen's description of a serious fire that occurred on the 16th.
The report goes on to quote Glen as stating that it would "take years for the bush to recover. " In his report to the Town Clerk on the fire, Glen writes that "it started in the gully at the head of Sydney Street and passed through some acres of bush (chiefly manuka) along the eastern side of the gardens up to Botanical Road. It has also damaged the appearance oi the native bush very much indeed ".
This fire demonstrated
the difficulties of maintaining a thinly staffed
forest reserve on the edge of a city. Though the
possibility of such damage was an unavoidable
concomitant to public use, at least it was not
supported by the community. However, building
the recreation ground was, and this caused so much
physical and visual damage to the landscape that its
scars have never been completly camouflaged By the
summer of 1910 Anderson Park Park was ready for
use. Instead of a long wooded valley, there was
now a large dark gully ending abrujptly in the wall of
fill making up the park. It was not long before this gully
became a rubbish tip, which was not cleared up until
the early 1930s. The blunt and amputated remains
of the western ridge can still be seen today.
A children's play area was also established in part of Anderson Park in 1927 during the construction of that area as a recreation ground. Its exact location is uncertain as little information is available. In 1934 it was removed/shifted back to the existing play area at the bottom of Grass Way which had been established in 1904. Shepherd and Cook (p. 243) comment on the duplication of slides at the play area after equipment was shifted from Anderson Park.
entertainment - Band Rotunda
During the 19th Century bands as well as tea kiosks became indissolubly linked with public places and popular outdoor entertainment. They flourished in Wellington at the time that the Botanic Garden was being developed as a public pleasure ground. Before the mid 1900's bands were not a regular feature of the Garden, but as better access began to provide guaranteed audiences, especially on Sundays, this changed. Band concerts in the Botanic Garden followed the opening of the Skyline Tea Kiosk. Applications from the Wellington Garrison Band to perform in the Botanic Garden during the summer of 1904-05 were approved, and in October 1905 the Council gave permission to the Kelburn and Karori Tramway Company to hold a series of band concerts near the Battery Reserve over the summer. A Band Rotunda had been an item on the Council estimates for 1895, but only now, as a result of the new role of the Botanic Garden as a place of public entertainment, did Council move to provide this facility. In 1907 the lawn at the entrance to the Glen and Glenmore tracks was selected as a site and an octagonal, wooden Band Rotunda built. This building remained in use until it was replaced by the present Sound Shell in 1953.
The old Rose Garden was on the site of the Sound Shell Lawn. Its transformation from Hector's Teaching Garden of 1886 was a gradual process. Under the City Council it became "the Enclosed Garden." The original long rectangular beds were divided up by new paths running at angles to them. Seasonal formal bedding became a feature, though this was always mixed with other plants, many retained from the original plantings. Hector's cabbage trees and some of the other native trees stayed there for many years. One old lancewood, its wounds loaded with concrete, finally fell on the Sound Shell Lawn during the Wahine Storm in 1968. The development of the Enclosed Garden into a rose garden occurred during Glen's period in office 1901 to 1918. There is no direct record of roses being planted at any one time, only a gradual, increasing dominance until the Garden was ready for another name change. In April 1912, while reporting on someone breaking into the Enclosed Garden, Glen stated that they had "wandered about cutting roses and other good flowers, and had strewn them about."
By 1917, when the Australian Automatic Weighing Machine Co. applied for permission to place one of their machines in the Garden, it is evident from the plan supplied with the Town Clerk's letter of permission, that "the Enclosed Garden" was now called "The Rosary", and that it was still fenced. The transformation continued under MacKenzie, but as late as 1928 other plants were still being taken out.
beds were edged with box, remembered by
those who had to weed them as being
riddled with oxalis. Also bedding plants
were used with the roses. In the summer
of 1928 pansies and violas were the
The one event held in the Garden before the First World War that drew on and used the whole potential of Wellington's new pleasure ground, occurred in March 1910. On the afternoon of Saturday the 12th a fete was held in the Garden for the purpose of raising money to build a swimming pool for the Boy's Institute. The worthiness of this cause moved to charitable enthusiasm many of the city's influential society ladies who organised themselves into committees and promoted the fete arousing an "extraordinary amount of interest" which resulted in a rush on tickets. The project was supported by the newspapers as well, which kept people informed about it through regular reports. Expectations were also high because of the "tremendous success" of a similar fete held earlier in the Christchurch gardens. The afternoon of March the 12th was a tremendous success in every way. The weather was brilliant. The Prime Minister, Sir Joseph Ward was out of Wellington, but telegrammed his "hearty wishes" for the success of the fete. His wife, Lady Ward and two other ladies played hostesses at the Mam Gates for the first hour welcoming some of the five thousand people who attended From three marquees afternoon teas were served to two thousand five hundred people in the first two hours . Three bands marched to the Garden accompanied by the cadets of the Boy's Institute and two hundred scouts. The bands provided music at the Play Area in conjunction with a Punch and Judy show for the children. Stalls in the Main Garden sold flowers, sweets, ice cream, cool drinks, and postcards which could be sent to absent friends from a special post office set up just for the occasion. From the Main Gates to the Thorndon Esplanade a train of nine motor cars gave people, especially children, an opportunity to experience a still relatively novel form of transport. Treasure hunts, lucky dips, and a concert were some of the other distractions that helped "part people from their rrtoney" and raise £400.0.0. for the Boy's Institute. By all accounts Wellington excelled and surprised itself. In retrospect it struck an Evening Post reporter that:
"The people's gardens should never be locked up against their owners for private gam, (but citizens would) suffer a small charge . . . for public or philanthropic causes . . . the gardens' might be used once or twice a year to raise funds to promote the beautifying of other portions of the people's estate. A fee . . . might help to buy some decent covering for the Cinderella of the Town Belt."
Sadly this event was to be a one-off affair. It was not until the 1950s that the building of the Sound Shell marked the beginning of the use of the Botanic Garden as a venue for public entertainment, on occasion approaching the scale and variety of the fete of 1910. The present Summer City programmes of subsidised holiday entertainment represent the climax of this trend. But before any of this was possible a lot of basic work had to be done reshaping parts of the land to provide for potential recreational developments.
Before building the fence in 1904 Glen had begun to alter the grade of the Main Drive to give it an even fall from the bridge to the entrance. This eliminated a dip in the middle of the Drive which collected water and was often muddy, and ensured that the new fence would end up with a straight fence line. On September 9th the carpenters started to build the fence following the old grade so that the top had a corresponding drop in the centre. Reporting this 'blunder' Glen explained that “Having to start away early on Saturday morning for Karori Cemetery I left a message with the Custodian to inform the carpenters that they would require to alter their level to suit the new grade but they took no notice of the order only continued to work. May I suggest that the portion which has been erected may be lifted up so as to correspond with the main grade of the walk."
This fence is also illustrative of the barriers recorded as being characteristic of the Garden under Glen. At the time of MacKenzie' s retirement in 1947, the Evening Post reminisced that in Glen's day "the Gardens were fairly strewn with locked gates and barbed fences that kept visitors off every thing but a small area inside the main gates and a few paths." The concept of the horticultural zoo was adhered to by Glen in many of his renovations and the visitor viewed the seasonal features through lattice bars and the criss-cross of wire-netting.
It would be easy to emphasise these eccentric aspects of Glen's work in the Garden at the expense of his very great abilities as a practical gardener. The enclosure mentality in fact predates Glen's period of office, and reflects as much the attitudes of those who employed him as it does of Glen himself. During Glen's time, more of the Garden was opened up to general access, and he initiated most of the more popular seasonal events such as begonia and bedding displays, that the Garden is so well known for today.
The article goes on to note the retreat of the pines from the Main Drive and the establishment of colourful bedding displays. Schemes in the pipeline such as an alpine rockery and an artificial lake are mentioned. This thirty year period lies between the extension of city transport to include the Botanic Garden, during an age of relative affluence, and the Great Depression. After the Second World War, mass ownership of motorcars, and other social changes reduced the importance of the Botanic Garden as a recreational facility. This was reflected in feature articles during Hutt's administration which were concerned with reporting developments within the Reserves Department as a whole, rather than concentrating on detailed accounts of horticultural events within the Botanic Garden. These latter were practically reduced to biennial announcements of the flowering of the Magnolia campbellii and Tulip Sunday.
Not everybody viewed
the changes begun by Glen with equanimity. The
acquisition of the Botanic Garden by the City Council
in 1891 involved much public debate about its proper
function. What should a botanic garden be? Would not
the Council devalue the reserve by turning it into a
place of popular recreation7 This conflict was
enshrined in the Vesting Act itself Clause six states
as a proviso that the original thirteen acres of the
Garden must "at all times hereafter be kept and
maintained by the Corporation as and for the
purposes of a
"I am glad to see some interest being taken in the (so called) Botanical Gardens. A visitor entering from theTinakon Road main entrance, and seeing a residence in such a conspicuous position (this is the superintendent's residence) would naturally suppose that it was the entrance to a private garden as all the beautifying has been done immediately around it. If (he were then told) that he was in the Botanical Gardens (he) no doubt would express his astonishment at their being called such"
Later in the letter the writer fires this accusation at the Council....
"Some years ago attention was called
to the destruction of the native vegetation (in the
Botanic Garden), and the
The voice of public disapproval at the wholesale dismantling of the established environment has always acted as a moderating influence on those who control the men who wield the axes. The letter concludes '
"Since the City Council has had
charge of the Botanical Gardens (an undisclosed)
amount of money has been spent
Botanical science was never a reason given by the Wellington City Council for its interest in the Garden. It wanted to secure an asset for popular recreational use which it believed belonged to the public anyway. The development of ornamental horticulture in its view was simply improving the Garden by providing for this use.
When Directors replaced Council committees in the management of the Reserves after 1918, the need to refer to Council declined with the provision of more adequate allocations of money. As a result, the period from 1918 to the present becomes more and more devoid of records relating to details of the day to day running of the Department.
As low water pressure was a problem for everyone living in the higher parts of the city, and because the daily needs of the Garden interfered with the supply to the local residents, the City Engineer recommended that a storage tank should be constructed for the needs of the Garden. This would fill during the night when demands on the water supply were low, and provide the Garden with a good water pressure during the day. He recommended a 10,000 gallon tank which could be installed for the cost of £150. Glen was still waiting for this in January 1912 when the Reserves Committee told him that the City Engineer was proceeding with the matter. The solution was probably the old brick water tank built in the nursery, and in use at least until the late 1940s. Dribbling water supplies were still a characteristic of the Garden during the 1950's and 60's, though internal corrosion and the build up of sediment in old galvanised iron pipes were responsible this time. This problem was removed when copper piping was installed during the 1970's.
The old lower nursery was closed in 1906 and the area opened to the public. As a result of this the Reserves Committee recommended "the removal of the stable and shed ... to a more suitable spot", but this was never carried out. The horses used in the Garden were housed here as before, and the tools were stored in the shed. There is no reference to a staff mess room but it is probable that the workers assembled here, and may have shared accommodation with the horses or the tools.
Part of the reason for the stable not being moved was to save money. The job with repairs to the tool shed was estimated to cost £40.0.0. Again there was difficulty finding an alternative site. Objections from adjoining residential areas played their part as well. In 1911 when the Council recommended that all these facilities be rebuilt, there was some discussion about siting the new stable somewhere opposite Glenmore Street. This was opposed as unsightly by the Northland Municipal Electors Association. For all these reasons the stables stayed where they were.
The directive in 1911 was that the City Engineer should prepare plans for a "stable, tool house, room for workmen, toilets etc" at an estimated cost of £500. As usual action on this matter was deferred for several years until things began to get desperate. In July 1914 Glen complained that the staff lavatory was in a bad condition "and should be replaced with a water supply (a flush toilet). The tool shed was also on its last legs: "the present hovel is absolutely rotten . . . (and) I am not able to keep any tools under present conditions. They are always disappearing. " As a result of this, tenders for building the stables and messroom were called. That of Messrs French and Hampton was accepted, and they were authorised to start work in October. The resulting buildings are among the most successful in the Botanic Garden. Built in a version of the English Arts and Crafts style which was popular in Wellington at that time, they serve their intended purposes, and contribute to the character and quality of their setting. With the removal of the Fernery in 1972 they have become the focal point to any southerly view of the Sunken Garden. The Potting Shed at the Nursery must have been built at the same time, or soon after as it is identical in style and materials, except for the windows which are many paned, iron framed casements.
Batten House for ferns
In 1905 Director George Glenn recommended the erection of a 'lattice or batten house' for "the growing of palms, tree ferns, bamboos etc in tubs and pots" at a cost of twenty five pounds, although 4 years later he was still having it erected. It was finally in use in 1911, and it was open to the public on Wednesday afternoons. Erected with hardwood slats, these often loosened in the wind. Eventually lined with punga logs from the 1939/40 Colonial exhibition from Rongotai to strengthen the structure, it remained in use until 1969 when it was demolished for safety reasons. It was never as popular with the public as the begonia house or other features in the garden.
After 1904 there was not another large scale clearance of pine plantations in the Main Garden until 1913. That year Glen wrote to the Town Clerk drawing attention "to the very unattractive and dirty appearance of the trees, shrubs and ground upon the eastern side of the principle entrance . . . " The area referred to is on the lower slopes of Druid Hill from the Main Gates to the rockery above the Sunken Garden. He suggested that some of the big pine trees be removed, and that the grounds in this area be generally improved. At first the Reserves Committee were not impressed with his recommendation but later they must have changed their minds. They visited the Garden at the beginning of March to view the proposal and consider a course of action. Glen recommended that the trees be cut back to a width of about a chain from the path, that the path be widened and the ground sown with grass and planted in shrubs. The Committee agreed to his proposals, and on March the 6th Council gave permission for the work to go ahead starting from the point farthest from the Main Gates. Today the line of Pines above the Main Gates and Sound Shell mark the extent of this clearance. Most of the trees and shrubs planted by Glen were removed in the late 1970s and early 1980s to make way for an extension of the present Dwarf Conifer Garden
This clearance stopped at the Main
Gates. Pines still grew along the Tinakon Road
frontage to the entrance of Anderson Park. In
1915 the Northland District Municipal Electors
Association wrote a letter to the Council on this
matter. They wanted to see these pines removed
from the lower slopes above Tinakori Road, which could
then be terraced, grassed, and planted with small
trees and native shrubs. Nothing came of this
suggestion until 1919, when J G MacKenzie made it his
first major work done in the Botanic Garden.
Rockeries formed a part of Glen's plans for the Main Garden right from the beginning of his remodelling work. The building of an alpine garden was reported as being projected in 1904 "the nucleus of which has been laid down ". The first record of a rock garden being constructed occurs in 1912. In October Glen wanted to get rocks from Island Bay "to extend the alpine garden at the Botanic Gardens". This was situated opposite the Band Rotunda on the point where the Glen and the Glenmore Tracks meet. The rockwork is still there today, though the situation is no longer suitable for growing alpine plants. These rockeries were not structural masterpieces, but they were furnished with lavish collections of plants. In relation to the extension of the alpine garden in 1912, the Council, on Glen's advice, bought 1,000 native alpine plants from Mr H H Travers for the sum of £10. In 1914 another £10 was spent on 285 alpine and sub alpine plants from the same source. Evidence that European alpine seed was brought in comes from letters referring to the seed order from Barr and Sons for 1910. Usually items are indicated by catalogue numbers only, except on odd occasions when something could not be supplied, or would be arriving later. Three plants mentioned that year in this connection are Dianthus alpinus, Dianthus caesius, and Androsace villosa. The work of building rock gardens in the Main Garden was continued by MacKenzie. One of these is beside the Top Drive above the Sunken Garden. Another is on the slopes above the tool sheds and Mess Room. Most of this work was done during the 1920s and early 1930s before the full effect of the slump slowed things down. That they had become a conspicuous feature of the Garden by 1930 is recorded by the "Dominion" that year. A long article on the Garden included a section on the rockeries, which were described as being "full of colour."
There is no mention of native alpines in the article, and quite apart from their not competing for attention as far as colour is concerned, Glen's original rock garden by the Band Rotunda could already have become the victim of encroaching shade trees. Again Otari Native Plant Museum had been established in 1927 and it seems logical to have moved this branch of alpine rock gardening out of the Botanic Garden altogether.
Since the 1930's, after
Glen's time, two other rock gardens have been
built. In the early 1960's the first part of that
along the Tinakori Road frontage was laid out. This
was extended in 1968, and from the early 1970's
onwards was planted with dwarf conifers. The second
one is the succulent rockery and this was built in
1972 with money donated by the Denton Trust. These
rockeries form a distinct species of intensive
horticultural activity within the Botanic Garden. They
occupy steep clay slopes facing the hot afternoon sun.
The rocks are founded in the clay and in these
circumstances the pockets of soil operate like an
elaborate sort of pot culture, very subject to
leaching and drying out. For them to be successful as
venues for alpine and herbaceous rock plants, they
need regular renovation and soil changes which is
labour intensive and expensive. For this reason larger
tougher shrubs and dwarf trees are more typical
features of the rock gardens today. Even so, with
time, and the presence of interested staff members,
they go through revivals periodically as alpine and
date of the erection of the first begonia
the area of the present nursery is not known, but in 1898
it is recorded that a sum of £10 was approved for
the provision of gdlass for a glasshouse. In
1904 a further glasshouse was erected. Used
primarily for the raising of cuttings and
seeds, but begonia house exhibitions did not occur
until after this date. Further glasshouses
were constructed, but the first reference to
Glan's begonia collection did not occur until
1913. The comment is recorded (James
Stirling) that George Glen had the
finest collection of begonias in the Southern
Hemisphere. Every year he purchased £5 of
seed from the North England nursery of Blackmore
and Langdon. The comment is also made that Glen
had a magnificent collection of pentstemons
propagated from cuttings each year.
this, the collection of seasonal
begonias were only on display to the public on
Sundays and Wednesdays from 2 to 4 pm.
Newspaper reports raised concern about the limited
public viewing, and the glasshouse was opened also
original begonia house was very small with only
one door. and the public had to pass in single
file through the glasshouse. The house was,
however, extended in 1915, and again in
1922. It is noted that "the need for an
adequate show house in the garden has been
stressed in season and out of season by the
Director of Parks and Reserves, so much so that
the Begonia House item of the estimates proposals
became looked upon as something to be cut our as a
regular thing." The Council did no deny the
Begonia Hose was one of the real features of the
Garden - if it had, any number of people would
have been prepared to argue it out - but simply
said the money could not be spared, and there it
to the erection of the new Begonia House in 1961
the glass houses were used for propagating during
the winter and as a display house for the
tuberous begonias, gloxinias and streptocarpus
from September to Easter. When that season
had finished staff had to remove the benches and
display pieces to prepare the building for
propagating plants for the spring plantings.
The directors, keepers, managers, curators of the garden in order of appointment
Their titles have changed over the years
Served 1870 - 1889